Scrapy runs on Python 2.7 and Python 3.4 or above under CPython (default Python implementation) and PyPy (starting with PyPy 5.9).
To install Scrapy using
conda install -c conda-forge scrapy
Alternatively, if you’re already familiar with installation of Python packages, you can install Scrapy and its dependencies from PyPI with:
pip install Scrapy
Note that sometimes this may require solving compilation issues for some Scrapy dependencies depending on your operating system, so be sure to check the Platform specific installation notes.
We strongly recommend that you install Scrapy in a dedicated virtualenv, to avoid conflicting with your system packages.
For more detailed and platform specifics instructions, as well as troubleshooting information, read on.
Things that are good to know¶
Scrapy is written in pure Python and depends on a few key Python packages (among others):
- lxml, an efficient XML and HTML parser
- parsel, an HTML/XML data extraction library written on top of lxml,
- w3lib, a multi-purpose helper for dealing with URLs and web page encodings
- twisted, an asynchronous networking framework
- cryptography and pyOpenSSL, to deal with various network-level security needs
The minimal versions which Scrapy is tested against are:
- Twisted 14.0
- lxml 3.4
- pyOpenSSL 0.14
Scrapy may work with older versions of these packages but it is not guaranteed it will continue working because it’s not being tested against them.
Some of these packages themselves depends on non-Python packages that might require additional installation steps depending on your platform. Please check platform-specific guides below.
In case of any trouble related to these dependencies, please refer to their respective installation instructions:
Using a virtual environment (recommended)¶
TL;DR: We recommend installing Scrapy inside a virtual environment on all platforms.
Python packages can be installed either globally (a.k.a system wide), or in user-space. We do not recommend installing scrapy system wide.
Instead, we recommend that you install scrapy within a so-called
“virtual environment” (virtualenv).
Virtualenvs allow you to not conflict with already-installed Python
system packages (which could break some of your system tools and scripts),
and still install packages normally with
sudo and the likes).
To get started with virtual environments, see virtualenv installation instructions. To install it globally (having it globally installed actually helps here), it should be a matter of running:
$ [sudo] pip install virtualenv
Check this user guide on how to create your virtualenv.
If you use Linux or OS X, virtualenvwrapper is a handy tool to create virtualenvs.
Once you have created a virtualenv, you can install scrapy inside it with
just like any other Python package.
(See platform-specific guides
below for non-Python dependencies that you may need to install beforehand).
Python virtualenvs can be created to use Python 2 by default, or Python 3 by default.
- If you want to install scrapy with Python 3, install scrapy within a Python 3 virtualenv.
- And if you want to install scrapy with Python 2, install scrapy within a Python 2 virtualenv.
Platform specific installation notes¶
Though it’s possible to install Scrapy on Windows using pip, we recommend you to install Anaconda or Miniconda and use the package from the conda-forge channel, which will avoid most installation issues.
conda install -c conda-forge scrapy
Ubuntu 14.04 or above¶
Scrapy is currently tested with recent-enough versions of lxml, twisted and pyOpenSSL, and is compatible with recent Ubuntu distributions. But it should support older versions of Ubuntu too, like Ubuntu 14.04, albeit with potential issues with TLS connections.
Don’t use the
python-scrapy package provided by Ubuntu, they are
typically too old and slow to catch up with latest Scrapy.
To install scrapy on Ubuntu (or Ubuntu-based) systems, you need to install these dependencies:
sudo apt-get install python-dev python-pip libxml2-dev libxslt1-dev zlib1g-dev libffi-dev libssl-dev
libxslt1-devare required for
libffi-devare required for
If you want to install scrapy on Python 3, you’ll also need Python 3 development headers:
sudo apt-get install python3 python3-dev
Inside a virtualenv,
you can install Scrapy with
pip after that:
pip install scrapy
The same non-Python dependencies can be used to install Scrapy in Debian Jessie (8.0) and above.
Mac OS X¶
Building Scrapy’s dependencies requires the presence of a C compiler and development headers. On OS X this is typically provided by Apple’s Xcode development tools. To install the Xcode command line tools open a terminal window and run:
There’s a known issue that
pip from updating system packages. This has to be addressed to
successfully install Scrapy and its dependencies. Here are some proposed
(Recommended) Don’t use system python, install a new, updated version that doesn’t conflict with the rest of your system. Here’s how to do it using the homebrew package manager:
PATHvariable to state that homebrew packages should be used before system packages (Change
.zshrcaccordantly if you’re using zsh as default shell):
echo "export PATH=/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin:$PATH" >> ~/.bashrc
.bashrcto ensure the changes have taken place:
brew install python
Latest versions of python have
pipbundled with them so you won’t need to install it separately. If this is not the case, upgrade python:
brew update; brew upgrade python
(Optional) Install Scrapy inside an isolated python environment.
This method is a workaround for the above OS X issue, but it’s an overall good practice for managing dependencies and can complement the first method.
virtualenv is a tool you can use to create virtual environments in python. We recommended reading a tutorial like http://docs.python-guide.org/en/latest/dev/virtualenvs/ to get started.
After any of these workarounds you should be able to install Scrapy:
pip install Scrapy
We recommend using the latest PyPy version. The version tested is 5.9.0. For PyPy3, only Linux installation was tested.
Most scrapy dependencides now have binary wheels for CPython, but not for PyPy.
This means that these dependecies will be built during installation.
On OS X, you are likely to face an issue with building Cryptography dependency,
solution to this problem is described
that is to
brew install openssl and then export the flags that this command
recommends (only needed when installing scrapy). Installing on Linux has no special
issues besides installing build dependencies.
Installing scrapy with PyPy on Windows is not tested.
You can check that scrapy is installed correctly by running
If this command gives errors such as
TypeError: ... got 2 unexpected keyword arguments, this means
that setuptools was unable to pick up one PyPy-specific dependency.
To fix this issue, run
pip install 'PyPyDispatcher>=2.1.0'.
AttributeError: ‘module’ object has no attribute ‘OP_NO_TLSv1_1’¶
After you install or upgrade Scrapy, Twisted or pyOpenSSL, you may get an exception with the following traceback:
File "[…]/site-packages/twisted/protocols/tls.py", line 63, in <module>
from twisted.internet._sslverify import _setAcceptableProtocols
File "[…]/site-packages/twisted/internet/_sslverify.py", line 38, in <module>
AttributeError: 'module' object has no attribute 'OP_NO_TLSv1_1'
The reason you get this exception is that your system or virtual environment has a version of pyOpenSSL that your version of Twisted does not support.
To install a version of pyOpenSSL that your version of Twisted supports,
reinstall Twisted with the
tls extra option:
pip install twisted[tls]
For details, see Issue #2473.